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A withholding tax is an income tax that a payer (typically an employer) remits on a payee’s behalf (typically an employee). The payer deducts, or withholds, the tax from the payee’s income. Here’s a simple example of how the Additional Medicare Tax calculations work for an employee who is single and has an annual income of $225,000.

Last week, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced the amounts of the premiums and deductibles for Medicare in 2024. Here’s exactly how much Medicare Part B premiums will be deducted from your Social Security checks next year. Founded in 1993, The Motley Fool is a financial services company dedicated to making the world smarter, happier, and richer. The Motley Fool reaches millions of people every month through our premium investing solutions, free guidance and market analysis on Fool.com, top-rated podcasts, and non-profit The Motley Fool Foundation.

The Self-Employed Contributions Act (SECA) mandates that self-employed workers pay Medicare and Social Security tax as part of their self-employment tax. The Additional Medicare Tax also applies to Railroad Retirement Tax Act compensation for employees and employee representatives. The 0.9% rate is the same, and the threshold amounts are the same as for wage earners and for those with self-employment income. Calculations are made the same way the tax is calculated on wage income. Employees are accustomed to having Medicare taxes withheld from their wages by their employers, and to having the right amount of Medicare tax withheld.

Barney earned $75,000 in Medicare wages, and Betty earned $200,000 in Medicare wages, so their combined total wages are $275,000. Barney and Betty will owe the Additional Medicare Tax on the amount by which their combined wages exceed $250,000, the threshold amount for married couples filing jointly. Their excess amount is $275,000 minus $250,000, or $25,000. Barney and Betty’s Additional Medicare Tax is 0.9% of $25,000, or $225. Compensation subject to RRTA taxes and wages subject to FICA tax are not combined to determine Additional Medicare Tax liability. The threshold applicable to an individual’s filing status is applied separately to each of these categories of income.

Your employer is required to furnish Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, to you no later than January 31, 2023. If you don’t receive your Form W-2 by early February, see Tax Topic 154 to find out what to do. Even if you don’t get a Form W-2, you must still figure your Additional Medicare Tax.

The Act provided a surcharge of 10% on federal corporate income taxes and personal income taxes as a measure to reduce the U.S. budget deficits and support the funding activity for the Vietnam War. Charging higher taxes would reduce the amount of money available for spending abroad to maintain how to calculate beginning & ending inventory costs the worldwide competitive position of U.S. goods. All employed individuals in the United States pay the Medicare tax, even if the employee or employer is not a citizen of the country. The standard Medicare tax is 1.45% if someone is an employee or 2.9% if a person is self-employed.

In that case, the individual should make estimated tax payments and/or request additional income tax withholding using Form W-4, Employee’s Withholding Certificate. Effective Jan. 1, 2013, an employer must withhold Additional Medicare Tax on wages it pays to an employee in excess of $200,000 in a calendar year. Any withheld Additional Medicare Tax will be credited against the total tax liability shown on the individual’s income tax return (Form 1040 or 1040-SR). The credit for any Additional Medicare Tax withheld on wages applies only to the wage earner. However, in community property states, half of any income tax withholding on one spouse’s wages will be credited to the other spouse.

What is FICA tax?

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The total bill is split between the employer and employee, with each party paying half. The employer’s and employee’s obligations with respect to the Medicare surtax are different. In some cases, there may be a “mismatch” between the amounts you are obligated to withhold and the amount of your employee’s surtax liability. Unlike the 6.2 percent Social Security tax and the 1.45 percent Medicare tax, the 0.9 percent surcharge is imposed only on the employee. You withhold the surtax from employee wages, but there is never a matching payment required by the employer. You simply multiply an employee’s gross wage payment by the applicable tax rate to determine how much you must withhold and how much you must pay in Social Security and regular Medicare taxes.

Reporting Additional Medicare Tax and Correcting Errors

You may be subject to a penalty for failure to make estimated tax payments if you owe Additional Medicare Tax and wait to pay the tax with your tax return. See Form 2210 (or Form 2210-F for farmers and fishermen) and its separate instructions to determine if the penalty applies to you. If you are self-employed, you pay Social Security taxes as part of the quarterly estimated taxes you submit to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

FICA Tax: Definition and How It Works in 2023

By contrast, each RDP takes full credit for the estimated tax payments that he or she made. However, if you anticipate liability for Additional Medicare Tax, you may request that your employer withhold an additional amount of income tax withholding on Form W-4. The additional income tax withholding will be applied against your taxes shown on your individual income tax return (Form 1040 or 1040-SR), including any Additional Medicare Tax liability. To the extent the employer does not withhold the 0.9 percent Medicare surtax, the employee must pay the tax. Employees who anticipate being under-withheld for the Medicare surtax can make estimated payments or they can request additional income tax withholding on Form W-4.

Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT) Example

Your employee will claim credit for any withheld Additional Medicare Tax against the total tax liability shown on their individual income tax return (Form 1040 or 1040-SR). The imputed cost of coverage in excess of $50,000 is subject to social security and Medicare taxes, and to the extent that, in combination with other wages, it exceeds $200,000, it is also subject to Additional Medicare Tax withholding. Uncollected taxes are not reported in boxes 4 and 6 of Form W-2. Unlike the uncollected portion of the regular (1.45%) Medicare tax, an employer may not report the uncollected Additional Medicare Tax in box 12 of Form W-2 with code N. If you are in a community property state and plan to file as married filing separately, see Pub.

Helping pay the bills

Employees, self-employed individuals, and others must use IRS Form 8959 to calculate their Additional Medicare Tax liability on their individual income tax returns. They should first include the amount of the liability, including wages and tips, then enter their filing status and subtract the amount paid to see if they owe additional tax or if they are eligible for a refund. If an employer underwithholds Additional Medicare Tax and does not discover the error in the same year wages were paid, the employer can not correct the error by making an interest-free adjustment. In this case, the employer should have reported the amount of Additional Medicare Tax withheld, if any, on the employee’s Form W-2 for the prior year.

Compare Railroad retirement (RRTA) compensation separately to the threshold. The taxes taken out of your paycheck for Social Security and Medicare are collectively referred to as FICA taxes. The additional Medicare tax was issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on November 26, 2013. Additional Medicare tax doesn’t apply to everyone, only those whose income surpasses a specific threshold. Include the amount from line 24 on the following line of your tax return. Include the amount from line 18 on the following line of your tax return.

In total, the combined rate is 7.65% up to maximum taxable amounts, with the maximum total taxable income amount having increased again in 2023. Workers who receive benefits before they reach full retirement age (FRA) are subject to the retirement earnings test. If your income exceeds certain thresholds, then Social Security will withhold benefits until you reach FRA. Like the Social Security tax limit, these thresholds typically increase annually with the national wage index. Through employment payroll tax withholdings, Medicare tax funds accumulate in the system for later use. It also pays for administering the Medicare program and covering the costs of fighting Medicare fraud and abuse.

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